Our ‘prescription’ is to fence out grazing animals and manage the tree cover to produce dappled shade and, at the same time, cut back multistemed trees back to single stems.

We have also found that laying or pleaching-in hazel and smaller stems horizontally with the flow creates cover and protection for juvenile salmonids. Severe erosion is corrected by grading the banks and protecting the foot with alder stems pinned to the bed.